Be informed about research on how genetic changes may affect antidepressant treatments

If your physician has struggled to find the right antidepressant treatment or is about to make a recommendation for treatment, gaining a better understanding of how genetics can affect medications may be helpful. Certain changes in DNA has been shown in the scientific literature, to alter the performance of these medications, being educated on these changes can aid in the discussions between physicians and patients. The recommendations from the scientific study groups has been endorsed by professional societies such as the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP).

How Kailos can help you

With the Kailos test, you will discover what DNA changes have been shown to be related to how medications are metabolized. If you are just beginning therapy, this information can be information that a treating physician incorporates into the selection process. These DNA changes could also provide physicians insights into reasons why treatments may not be working as effectively as expected or are producing more side effects than expected. At Kailos Genetics, we sequence DNA and compare it to research and clinical study data so a physician can make genetics a part of their decision making.


Information derived from genetic testing is most useful when initiating therapy with an antidepressant. Genetic tests are one of several pieces of information that your doctor will consider before initiating therapy.

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A variety of scientific and clinical research groups around the world have studied the relationships between many genes and antidepressant medications including: TCAs - Elavil (amitriptyline), Anafranil (clomipramine), Norpramin (desipramine), Sinequan (doxepin), Tofranil (imipramine), Pamelor (nortriptyline), & Surmontil (trimipramine), SSRIs - Clexa (citalopram), Lexapro (escitalopram), Paxil/Pexeva (paroxetine) & Zoloft (sertaraline), and SNRIs - Effexor (venlafaxine)

From those studies, two genes have been identified for extensive studies: CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. In many of these studies, different forms of these genes were related, although not necessarily causative, of how effective different classes of antidepressants performed. Guidelines issued by the Clinical Pharmacogenomics Implementation Consortium contain extensive information on the studies reviewed:

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants: 2016 Update. doi: 10.1002/cpt.597; Supplemental Material

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. doi: 10.1002/cpt.597; Supplemental Material

These studies have not been reviewed by the FDA.

Did you know?

For many doctors, genetic information is a new consideration in their treatment of depression and anxiety. Your doctor may not suggest the test, so you may want to inquire with them about your interest. Getting a Kailos test can provide genetic data that can be informative to treatment of depression and anxiety.

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