Gene-based testing helps you and your doctor know which types of genes you have so you can make decisions about your health with more confidence. We know that the way your genes impact your health is complex, and you may want to learn more. The resources below are a great place to start.
Genetics in cancer
When you take a Kailos test, we test your genes for mutations that may lead to an increased risk of certain cancers. We check for the standard BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and we also analyze 31 additional genes, including APC, ATM, BARD1, BMPR1A, BRIP1, CDH1, CDKN2A, CHEK2, EPCAM, FH, FLCN, MLH1, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, NF1, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D, RINT1, SDHB, SMAD4, STK11, TP53, VHL, and XRCC2 to provide information about risks related to breast, ovarian, colon and endometrial (uterine) cancer. With this knowledge, you and your doctor can make important decisions about your health. Learn more about the cancers we look at and what it means for your health.
Ovarian cancer and genetics
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most fatal female cancer, resulting in approximately 140,000 deaths worldwide each year. A woman with one close (1st degree) relative diagnosed with ovarian cancer has 3 times the increased risk of developing ovarian cancer herself. By the time it is diagnosed, approximately 70% of these cases are advanced stage disease, resulting in a 5-year survival rate that is less than 30%.
However, for patients caught early (Stage I), the survival rate is over 90%. A prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy reduces the risk of ovarian/fallopian tube cancer, for women that have the high risk BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, by 75-96%. Testing of additional genes that reveal risks of more than 2 times can decrease mortality as a result of ovarian cancer since there is a surgical option for at-risk women.
Approximately 13-18% of ovarian cancers are associated with heritable (gremlin) mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The known ovarian cancer risk genes, which include BRCA1 and BRCA2, are estimated to explain less than 40% of the risk of ovarian cancer. So far, 11 additional ovarian cancer risk genes have been identified, each conferring less than 1.5 times the risk and more likely exist. Evidence for this has come to light through the recent identification of mutations in the genes: RAD51C, RAD51D and BRIP1. RAD51D mutations are associated with a 6.3 times of an increase in risk; whereas, BRIP1 mutations are associated with an 8.1 times increased risk of ovarian cancer. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are also associated with increased, although smaller, risks of ovarian cancer. In particular, mutations of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 are reported to be associated with ovarian cancer as part of the Lynch Syndrome.
Health Insurance and Genetic Testing
According to the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), it is against the law for your health insurer to use a genetic test result or family health history as a reason to deny you health insurance, or decide how much you pay for your health insurance. Learn more about GINA and what it means for you at http://ginahelp.org/